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Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 29-33

Acute leukemia presenting with musculoskeletal manifestations: A case series

1 Department of Pathology, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
2 Department of Rheumatology, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Shantveer G Uppin
Department of Pathology, Nizams Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad, Telangana
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmpo.ijmpo_113_19

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Introduction: Leukemia is the most common childhood malignancy accounting for 30%–40% of cases. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common leukemia in children with peak incidence in 2–6 years of age. The present study aims to assess the incidence of acute leukemia in patients presenting with musculoskeletal manifestations. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted in a tertiary center from January 2014 to December 2018. A total of 63 children presented with musculoskeletal manifestations and underwent bone marrow examination. Based on final marrow diagnosis, the study group was divided into leukemic and nonleukemic groups. Results: Fever was the most common presenting complaint and was present in all the patients of both the groups. The occurrence of hepatosplenomegaly was comparatively higher in the leukemic group than in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). The predominant type of arthritis was oligoarticular (68.15%) in the leukemic group and polyarticular (77.27%) in the nonleukemic group. Rheumatoid rash was noted in 20% of JIA patients, and none of the patients in the leukemic group had rash. The percentages of anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia were statistically higher in leukemia patients than in JIA patients. Conclusion: Bone marrow studies are a prerequisite in diagnosing leukemias. However, based on the presence of few atypical clinical and laboratory features, leukemia can be excluded in JIA patients.

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