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Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 41  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 523-529

Cerebral sinus venous thrombosis in indian pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Incidence, risk factors, and outcome


1 Department of Hematology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Radiology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Biostatistics and Health Informatics, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Rajesh Kashyap
Department of Hematology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rae Bariely Road, Lucknow - 226 014, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijmpo.ijmpo_206_19

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Background: Cerebral sinus venous Thrombosis (CSVT) is a rare complication of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment, with an incidence rate ranging from 1.1% to 2.9%. Steroids and L-asparaginase (LASP) are the major risk factors. Methods: The aim of this study was to find the incidence rate and risk factors for CSVT in our patients. Ninety-two pediatric ALL diagnosed and treated with ALL-Berlin–Frankfurt–Munster-95 protocol over a period of 5 years (2013–2017) were the subject of the study. Six (6.5%) patients developed CSVT during their therapy and were further analyzed. Results: Six (five males and one female) patients had a CSVT event. The mean age at presentation was 13.5 ± 4.1 years. CSVT event occurred during the induction/re-induction phase of chemotherapy. The superior sagittal sinus was the most frequent site of thrombosis. The timing of CSVT was related to using of LASP and steroids. High-risk disease was associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. Infection and dehydration were other important risk factors. No association was observed between the risk of CSVT and age, sex, immunophenotype, and white blood cell count. All the patients were treated with low-molecular-weight heparin and one patient developed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. No death occurred due to CSVT. Conclusions: The Incidence of CSVT was 6.5% in our study which is significantly high but comparable with studies from other Asian countries. It is, therefore, important to be vigilant for the detection of CSVT during treatment of ALL and initiate the appropriate treatment to prevent adverse events.


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