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Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
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   2011| January-March  | Volume 32 | Issue 1  
    Online since June 6, 2011

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Epidemiological review of gastric cancer in India
Rajesh P Dikshit, Garima Mathur, Sharayu Mhatre, BB Yeole
January-March 2011, 32(1):3-11
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81883  PMID:21731209
Stomach cancer is the one of the leading cause of cancer in southern region of India. Its incidence is decreasing worldwide yet on global scale stomach cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. Etiology of gastric cancer includes Helicobacter pylori infection, diet and lifestyle, tobacco, alcohol and genetic susceptibility. In this review, we tried to find the contribution of Indian scientist in understanding the descriptive and observational epidemiology of stomach cancer. PubMed was used as a search platform using key words such as "stomach cancer, treatment, clinical characteristics, stomach cancer outcome, epidemiology, etiological factor and their corresponding Mesh terms were used in combination with Boolean operators OR, AND". Most of the reported studies on gastric cancer from India are case report or case series and few are case-control studies. Indian studies on this topic are limited and have observed H. pylori infection, salted tea, pickled food, rice intake, spicy food, soda (additive of food), tobacco and alcohol as risk factors for gastric cancer. More research is required to understand the etiology, develop suitable screening test, to demarcate high-risk population and to develop and evaluate the effect of primary prevention programs.
  7,196 910 16
The relationship between serum lipid levels and the risk of oral cancer
Jyoti G Chawda, Shikha S Jain, Hemali R Patel, Nandini Chaduvula, Kunal Patel
January-March 2011, 32(1):34-37
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81888  PMID:21731214
Background: Lipids are the major cell membrane components essential for various biological functions including cell growth and division for the maintenance of cell integrity of normal and malignant tissues. The changes in lipid profile have long been associated with cancer. Hypocholesterolemia has been observed in patients with cancers of various organs. Therefore, a causative relationship might exist between plasma lipid levels and oral cancer patients. Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the alterations and clinical significance of plasma lipid profiles in untreated head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 subjects (25 oral cancer patients and 5 controls) were included. Fasting blood lipid profile including cholesterol (C), triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were evaluated using spectrophotometric kits, with CHOD PAP technique. The values were then statistically analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc methods. Results: The levels of total lipids, cholesterol and HDL were significantly lower in oral cancer patients as compared to controls, but LDL and VLDL values were not significant. Conclusion: An inverse relationship was found between the lipid levels and the occurrence of oral cancer. Hence, the lower plasma lipid status may be a useful indicator to detect the initial changes seen in neoplastic process.
  5,115 626 14
Gastric cancer in India
Atul Sharma, Venkatraman Radhakrishnan
January-March 2011, 32(1):12-16
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81884  PMID:21731210
The incidence of gastric cancer in India is low compared to developed countries, though there are certain geographical areas (Southern part and northeastern states of country) where the incidence is comparable to high-incidence areas of world. Despite the large number of patients being treated for gastric cancer, there are not sufficient publications discussing associated risk factors and outcomes in these patients. This article discusses relevant Indian epidemiological and clinical studies about gastric cancers. This article also highlights the gap in publication from India and developed countries regarding gastric cancer and stresses on collaborative efforts of the Indian scientific community to conduct epidemiological, pathological, and clinical studies to have a new standard of care for Indian patients.
  4,878 690 3
Transilluminating testicular mass
Santosh Kumar Mahalik, Alpana Prasad, Suneeta Bhalla, Rajeev Kulshrestha
January-March 2011, 32(1):46-48
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81891  PMID:21731217
Testicular tumor in prepubertal age group is uncommon. Most of the testicular tumors are benign in this age group and present as painless, hard testicular mass. We present a case where a 7 year male child presented to us with painless scrotal swelling, which was cystic and transilluminating, clinically mimicking as hydrocele. On ultrasonography, the mass was solid. Orchidectomy was performed and histopathology revealed mature cystic teratoma.
  3,858 254 1
Role of glutathione-s-transferase and CYP1A1*2A polymorphisms in the therapy outcome of south Indian acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients
KJ Suneetha, K Nirmala Nancy, KR Rajalekshmy, R Rama, TG Sagar, T Rajkumar
January-March 2011, 32(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81886  PMID:21731212
Background: Polymorphisms in the drug-metabolizing enzymes are found to be associated with the inter-individual variation in response to a particular drug. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in the metabolism of several anticancer drugs, including alkylating agents, anthracyclines, and cyclophosphamides. Aim: The present study is aimed to examine the association of GST and CYP1A1*2A polymorphisms in the susceptibility to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: A total of 92 immunophenotyped patients and 150 cord blood controls were genotyped by PCR for GSTM1 and GSTT1, RQ-PCR allelic discrimination assay for GSTP1 and PCR-RFLP for CYP1A1*2A polymorphism. Results: We have previously reported the significant association of GSTM1 (null) and combined GSTP1 {(Ile/Val)/ (Val/Val)} /GSTM1 (null) genotype with the susceptibility to ALL. No significant association was observed with GSTT1 (P=0.75) and CYP1A1*2A (P=0.61 for +/- and P=0.86 for -/- respectively) in the susceptibility to ALL. Survival analysis was performed in 50 of the 92 patients who were followed for three years. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for three years showed significant lower event-free survival in patients harboring GSTP1 (Ile/Val) and GSTP1 (Val/Val) (P=0.038 and 0.0001, respectively) genotype. Cox regression analysis revealed GSTP1 as an independent prognostic marker with 6-fold higher risk with Val/Val genotype (P=0.003). Conclusions: Our results show that GSTP1 (Ile/Val) polymorphism has a role in the susceptibility to ALL and also influence treatment outcome.
  2,931 372 13
Evolving role of high dose stem cell therapy in multiple myeloma
Ajay Gupta, Lalit Kumar
January-March 2011, 32(1):17-24
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81885  PMID:21731211
Conventional chemotherapy has been used in the treatment of multiple myeloma. However the development of autologous stem cell transplant represented a major advance in its therapy. Complete response (CR) rates to the tune of 40-45% were seen and this translated into improvements in progression-free survival and also overall survival in some studies. As a result the autologous stem cell transplants (ASCT) is the standard of care in eligible patients and can be carried out with low treatment-related mortality. Allogenic transplant carries the potential for cure but the high mortality associated with the myeloablative transplant has made it unpopular. Reduced Intensity Stem Cell Transplants (RIST) have been tried with varying success but with a high degree of morbidity as compared to the ASCT. Introduction of newer agents like thalidomide, lenalidomide, bortezomib and liposomal doxorubicin into the induction regimens has resulted in higher CR and very good partial response rates (VGPR) as well as improvement in ease of administration. These drugs have also proved useful in patients with adverse cytogenetics. Recent trials suggest that this has translated into improvements in response rates post-ASCT. There is a suggestion that patients achieving CR/nCR or VGPR after induction therapy should be placed on maintenance and ASCT then could be used as a treatment strategy at relapse. All these trends however await confirmation from further trials. Tandem transplants have been used to augment the results obtained with ASCT and have demonstrated their utility in patients who achieved only a partial response or stable disease in response to the first transplant as well as patients with adverse cytogenetics. Incorporation of bortezomib along with melphalan into the conditioning regimen has also been tried. RIST following ASCT has been tried with varying success but does not offer any major advantage over ASCT and is associated with higher morbidity. It is hoped that recent advances in therapy will contribute greatly to improved survival.
  2,713 458 -
Childhood cancer in developing society: A roadmap of health care
PM Ramesh, RK Marwaha, TS Anish
January-March 2011, 32(1):30-33
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81887  PMID:21731213
Background: We assessed referral patterns of children with hematological malignancies (HM) in North India. Materials and Methods: The parents/guardians were interviewed at presentation, in the period between October 2001 and November 2002. Patient delay (symptom-contact), health system delay (contact-diagnosis), total delay (symptom-diagnosis), and number of contacts were compared between high- and standard-risk disease group. Results: Of the 79 children (55 boys; 69.6%) with HM, 47 (59.5%) had Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). Forty-four children had high-risk disease. The patient, system and total delay were a median of 2 days (with Interquartile range IQR of 1−6), 37 days (IQR 13−55), and 38 days (IQR 15−60) respectively. Majority of patients (64/79; 81%) went to private sector (non governmental health care providers) for health care. Number of contacts, which was the most significant, correlate with system delay. Conclusions: Sensitizing the private sector practitioners about cancer in symptomatic children (pallor, bleeding, fever) may be effective.
  2,022 287 1
Extranodal testicular anaplastic versus plasmablastic plasma cell tumor: A rare case with diagnostic dilemma in a developing country
P. Jovita M. Martin, Anita Ramesh, Simon Hercules, Silamban , T Dhanasekar, VS Mallikarjuna, Lionel Rohit Mathew
January-March 2011, 32(1):49-54
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81892  PMID:21731218
Primary testicular plasmacytoma is rare, especially when occurring in the absence of a previous or concurrent diagnosis of multiple myeloma. An 84-year-old gentleman was admitted with complaints of swelling over the right side of scrotum for the past 2 months. Local examination revealed a 10×15 cm tense and tender swelling involving the right scrotum. Therefore, high orchidectomy with excision of hemiscrotum was done. The histopathology revealed testicular plasmacytoma, which was positive for CD 138.
  2,053 227 1
Abiraterone acetate, an inhibitor of adrenal androgen synthesis in "hormone refractory prostate cancer"
Arun Kumar Goel, Sudarsan De
January-March 2011, 32(1):43-45
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81890  PMID:21731216
  1,947 228 -
To listen is to be...
Sudeep Gupta
January-March 2011, 32(1):1-2
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81882  PMID:21731208
  1,841 267 -
Carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children with solid malignancies receiving doxorubicin therapy
Anant Khositseth, Suwadee Jirasakpisarn, Samart Pakakasama, Lulin Choubtuym, Duangrurdee Wattanasirichaigoon
January-March 2011, 32(1):38-42
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81889  PMID:21731215
Aim: Previous studies demonstrated l-carnitine decreasing doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Our objectives were to study carnitine levels and cardiac functions in children treated with doxorubicin and the effect of short-term l-carnitine supplements. Materials and Methods: Serial carnitine levels and cardiac functions were obtained in children with newly diagnosed solid malignancies before doxorubicin, after cumulative doses of ≥150 mg/m 2 and ≥300 mg/m 2 , respectively. Oral l-carnitine 100 mg/kg/day for 3 days were given to the children treated with doxorubicin at cumulative doses of ≥150 mg/m 2 and ≥300 mg/m 2 . Carnitine levels and cardiac functions were also obtained in those children before and after short-term oral l-carnitine at each cumulative dose of doxorubicin. Results: Five children (3 females), median age of 9.1 years (range 1.5-13 years) with newly diagnosed solid malignancies were enrolled in the study. Free carnitine (FC) tended to decrease while acyl-carnitine (AC) increased making AC/FC ratio increased after cumulative dose of ≥150 and ≥300 mg/m 2 but the statistics was not significant. Left ventricular (LV) systolic function was not significantly changed. Interestingly, LV global function (LV myocardial performance index) was significantly increased after 150 mg/m 2 (median 0.39, 0.27-0.51) and 300 mg/m 2 (median 0.46, 0.27-0.50) when compared to baseline (median 0.28, 0.14-0.48) (P=0.05). Carnitine levels and cardiac functions were not significantly changed after oral l-carnitine supplement at cumulative dose of ≥150 mg/m 2 (n=6) and ≥300 mg/m 2 (n=9). Conclusions: Carnitine levels tended to decrease after doxorubicin treatment. LV global dysfunction was documented early after doxorubicin. However, short-term l-carnitine supplement did not improve cardiac function.
  1,723 279 1
Shorter course of trastuzumab: Caveat emptor
Ajit Venniyoor
January-March 2011, 32(1):55-56
DOI:10.4103/0971-5851.81893  PMID:21731219
  1,320 190 -