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Indian Journal of Medical and Paediatric Oncology
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Correlation between multidrug-resistant bacteria colonization and bloodstream infections in children with hematolymphoid malignancies in a tertiary cancer center in India


1 Department of Child Health, Korle Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana
2 Department of Pediatric Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, HBNI, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
3 Department of Microbiology, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Gaurav Narula,
Department of Pediatric Oncology, Tata Memorial Hospital, HBNI, Mumbai, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijmpo.ijmpo_190_19

Background: Bloodstream infections with drug-resistant bacteria are associated with a higher morbidity and mortality. Based on previous studies in our institution demonstrating a rising incidence of multi-drug resistant organism (MDR) bacteria in bloodstream infections and high prevalence of enteric colonization with MDR, the “de-escalation” strategy for empirical antibiotics was adopted in the management of febrile neutropenia in children with hematolymphoid malignancies with MDR colonization. An audit to determine whether surveillance rectal swabs correlated with blood cultures in febrile neutropenia. Methods: Patient data from January 2015 to July 2016 were examined. Rectal swabs of children with hematolymphoid malignancies were obtained at presentation. Blood cultures were taken during febrile neutropenia. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 24.0®. The significance level was set at P < 0.05. Results: Most patients (62.1%) with confirmed bloodstream infection (BSI) were colonized with either extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing organisms (ESBLO) (31.9%) or MDR (30.2%). Majority 116 (62.7%) developed BSI caused by either MDR or ESBLO. In contrast, only 12 (10.6%) patients colonized by sensitive bacteria, developed BSI caused by either MDR or ESBLO. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.001). Thus, the baseline rectal swab had a sensitivity and a specificity of 90.6% and 59.4%, respectively, in predicting BSI with either MDR or ESBLO. Conclusions: We conclude that high prevalence of MDR colonization at presentation significantly results in MDR BSI, which further results in a significant increase in intensive care unit admissions and mortality. This would justify the use of a “de-escalation” antibiotic policy. Whether such a strategy has been successful or not in impacting outcomes, would need further study.


    

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